Clinic Location & Map

#09-40 Mt Elizabeth Novena Specialist Centre
(located within Mt Elizabeth Novena Hospital)
38 Irrawaddy Road
Singapore 329563

Phone: +65 6235 1180
Fax: +65 668 41310
Emergency: +65 6535 8833
Email: drchin@ccmurology.com
 

Clinic Hours

Monday - Friday 9:00am - 5:30pm
Saturday 9:00am -12:30pm
Sunday / Public Holiday Closed

Urinary Tract Infection

picture of cystitis_of_bladder

Cystitis of the bladder showing inflamed lining

picture of cystitis_of_bladder

Key points:

  • UTI is more common in women
  • With increasing antibiotic-resistance, a urine culture is essential in determining the type of bacteria and appropriate antibiotic
  • A 5-day course of antibiotics is adequate in uncomplicated UTI, but more complicated UTIs require further investigations and a longer course

When bacteria get into the bladder via the urethra, it causes infection (cystitis). Left untreated, the infection goes up to the kidneys to cause a more severe infection (pyelonephritis). Urine infection affects all age groups. The symptoms include frequency of urination, lower abdominal pain, burning sensation in the urine passage, cloudy, smelly urine and frank blood in the urine. When the infection affects the kidneys, loin pain, fever, chills and even septic shock can occur.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is also more likely to occur when there is an abnormality in the urinary tract. Diabetic patients are also more likely to get UTI due to the excess sugar in their urine. UTI are also more likely to occur whenever there is stagnant urine in the bladder due to obstruction or weak bladder muscle. Women are especially prone to UTI.

Diagnosis

1. Urine dipstick [Fig 1]

The finding of both red and white blood cells in the urine is highly suggestive of UTI. A quick dipstick test is the combur 9 which takes only a minute to do.

A positive reaction to white blood cells and nitrites confirms the presence of bacteria.

Urine dipstick

Fig 1. Urine dipstick as a quick initial test to confirm UTI

2. Urine culture [Fig 2]

Urine dipstick

Fig 2.Urine culture to confirm type of bacteria and the appropriate antibiotic

Confirmation of UTI is best done by obtaining a mid-stream urine specimen for culture to isolate the offending bacteria and identify the most appropriate antibiotic to give. Most laboratories can give the result by 48 hours.


3. Ultrasound

Ultrasound of bladder

Fig 3. Ultrasound of the bladder showing a stone as the cause of recurrent cystitis

A screening ultrasound can easily be done in the clinic. This may reveal bladder or kidney stones as the underlying source [Fig 3].


4. Xrays

If ultrasound reveals a stone or an abnormal-looking kidney, contrast X-ray studies of the urinary tract (IVU or CT urography) is indicated [Fig 4a]. They are also recommended in recurrent UTI to exclude an abnormal urinary system e.g. duplex ureter in which urine can reflux up into the kidney and ultimately, cause kidney damage. The advantage of a CT urography scan is that a 3-dimensional reconstruction can also be done [Fig 4b].

Left Kidney

Fig 4b. CT scan with 3-D reconstruction of an infected left kidney due to duplex system

Left Kidney

Fig 4a. IVU of an infected left kidney due to stones

5. Cystoscopy [Fig 5]

Picture of Flexible cystoscope

Fig 5. Flexible cystoscope to visualize the bladder and prostate

Occasionally, endoscopic inspection of the bladder is needed to rule out anatomic bladder disease, eg. Diverticulum, enlarged obstructing prostate. This can easily be done under local anaesthesia.

Treatment

The mainstay of UTI treatment is appropriate and adequate antibiotic course. Uncomplicated UTI require only 5 days of antibiotics. Complicated require at least 10 days e.g. infections of the prostate, kidney, diabetics. The sensitivity test is especially useful in helping the doctor select the most effective drug, as antibiotic resistance is getting more prevalent. The most common drugs for uncomplicated UTIs are trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim), Augmentin and ciprofloxacin (Ciprobay).. It is important to take the full course of treatment because symptoms usuallu disappear before the infection is fully cleared. Pregnant woman who develop a UTI should be treated promptly, bearing in mind that only certain antibiotics are safe during pregnancy.

Drugs can be given to relieve the pain of urination, e.g. flavoxates (Genurin, Urispas). Urine alkalinizing agents such as citrate (Urocit K, Citravescent) can also alleviate the irritative symptoms and prevent UTI.

UTI In Females

Women are also more prone to urine infection because their urethra is much shorter. Typically, young girls get their first cystitis when they become sexually active. After menopause, women are also likely to get urine infection because the dry vagina and urethra is less resistant to bacteria. The types of bacteria that get into the bladder originate from the faeces. Hence, maintaining local hygiene is an important in preventing UTI. When the infection proves difficult to treat or is recurrent, an underlying cause should always be suspected, e.g. stones, duplex system, refluxing ureter.

Diagnosis

Examination of the vulva may reveal an inflamed opening (caruncle). The urethra opening-vagina distance can also be assessed.

Recurrent UTIs

Many women suffer from frequent UTIs. Nearly 20% of women who have a UTI will have another. It is well known that some women are just more prone to recurrent attacks. Women who are particularly prone are those who are born with a close urethra to vagina distance, which allow bacteria to enter the urethra more easily especially during sex. Another common reason for recurrent UTI is the persistence of bacteria that was not eradicated the last time round. The widespread use of antibiotics have resulted in resistant strains which remain in the lining of the vagina and urethra. Doctors often give antibiotics based on "best guess" but do not realize that if the bacteria is only partially sensitive to the antibiotics, the bacteria will continue to thrive. Hence, it is important to do a urine culture prior to starting antibiotics to identify such resistant strains of bacteria.

Women with frequent UTI and no identifiable cause will benefit from preventive therapy. About 4 out of 5 women who have a UTI get another in 18 months. A woman who has frequent recurrences (three or more a year) can consider the following treatment options:

  1. Low dose antibiotic daily for 3 to 6 months, eg. bactrim, nitrofurantoin
  2. Single dose antibiotic immediately after sexual intercourse

Additional steps that a woman can take to avoid an infection are:

  1. Drinking plenty of water every day. Drinking cranberry juice is supposed to help but the scientific evidence is weak.
  2. Not holding the bladder for too long because stale urine is a good medium for bacteria
  3. Emptying their bladder immediately after sexual intercourse

UTI In Males

UTI is unusual in men. A common and often missed underlying cause is foreskin infection (balanitis). Young men (20 to 50 years) are also prone to prostate infection (prostatitis). [Fig 6]. Many of them are assumed to have simple UTI and given a short course of antibiotics which is not sufficient in eradicating the bacteria that are actually residing inside the prostate, resulting in a re-infection. In older men (above 50 years), it usually stems from stagnant urine in the bladder caused by an enlarged prostate (BPH) [Fig 7].

Picture of Prostatitis

Fig 6. Prostatitis is a common cause of UTI in younger men

Picture of BPH

Fig 7. BPH in older men causing bladder blockage and residual urine


Diagnosis

UTI in men require a proper physical examination to reveal underlying causes, e.g. a tight foreskin (phimosis) which traps dirt beneath and promotes bacterial overgrowth [Fig 8].

Prostatitis itself is a clinical diagnosis. A physical exam is done to check for pelvic / groin tenderness and a digital rectal exam will reveal a swollen (boggy) and tender prostate [Fig 9].

Picture of Phimosis

Fig 8. Phimosis

Picture of Prostate

Fig 9. Prostate examination


If sexually transmitted disease is suspected, penile swab and blood tests are also done.

Types

Prostatitis fall into the following categories:
a)acute bacterial prostatitis
b)chronic bacterial prostatitis
c)nonbacterial prostatitis, prostatodynia and chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

a) Acute bacterial prostatitis

The symptoms come on suddenly and may include:

  1. Fever and chills
  2. Pain in the pelvis, lower back or groin
  3. Burning pain during urination (dysuria)
  4. Frequent urination
  5. Bloody urine
  6. Difficulty emptying the bladder and even sudden painful retention of urine

Acute prostatitis can be a serious condition and requires intravenous antibiotics until the fever subsides, followed by oral antibiotics for at least 3 weeks.

b) Chronic bacterial prostatitis

Chronic bacterial prostatitis develops more slowly and usually not associated with high fever. The symptoms of pain tend to wax and wane and include:

  1. Frequent and urgent need to urinate, both day and night
  2. Dull ache in the pelvic area, lower back and scrotum
  3. Pain referred to the penis tip at the end of micturition
  4. Hesitancy when initiating a urine stream
  5. Blood in urine or semen
  6. Pain after ejaculation

c) Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis

Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis is due to persistent non-infective inflammation of the prostate. The symptoms are similar to those of chronic bacterial prostatitis. A man is assumed to have non-bacterial prostatitis only after an adequate course of antibiotics has been given. The only way to prove whether the prostatitis is bacterial or not is from direct culture of the prostate / seminal fluid. Nonbacterial prostatitis may also be chemical in nature, e.g. from reflux of urine into the prostate as a result of non-relaxing urinary sphincter e.g. psychological stress, excess caffeine.